How to use chkconfig on startup for services
7 Linux chkconfig Command Examples – Add, Remove, View, Change Services
Chkconfig command is used to setup, view, or change services that are configured to start automatically during the system startup.
This article contains 7 practical examples that explains how to use the chkconfig command.
1. Check Service Startup status from Shell Script
When you execute chkconfig command only with the service name, it returns true if the service is configured for startup. The following code snippet shows how to check whether a service is configured for startup or not from a shell script.
# vi check.sh chkconfig network && echo "Network service is configured" chkconfig junk && echo "Junk service is configured" # ./check.sh Network service is configured
You can also specifically check whether it is configured for a particular run level or not.
# vi check1.sh chkconfig network --level 3 && echo "Network service is configured for level 3" chkconfig network --level 1 && echo "Network service is configured for level 1" # ./check1.sh Network service is configured for level 3
2. View Current Status of Startup Services
The –list option displays all the services with the current startup configuration status.
# chkconfig --list abrtd 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off acpid 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off atd 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off ...
To view only the services that are configured to be started during system startup, do the following. Please note that this assumes that your system startup level is 3.
chkconfig --list | grep 3:on
Note: To view all available system run levels, refer to 6 Stages of Linux Boot Process
To view the startup configuration of a particular service, grep the output of ‘chkconfig –list’ for that service.
chkconfig --list | grep network
3. Add a new Service to the Startup
Use –add option to add a specific service to the list of services that will be started during system reboot.
The following example shows how to add a new service (for example, iptables) to the list of services that needs to be started. The ‘chkconfig –add’ command will also turn on level 2, 3, 4 and 5 automatically as shown below.
# chkconfig --list | grep iptables # chkconfig --add iptables # chkconfig --list | grep iptables iptables 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off
Note: “chkconfig –add” only adds an existing service to the list of startup. If the service doesn’t exist, you should first install it before adding it to the system startup list. While this is pretty obvious, it is worth to mention it, as a newbie might make this mistake.
4. Remove a Service From Startup List
The following example shows that ip6tables services is configured for startup.
# chkconfig --list | grep ip6tables ip6tables 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:off 6:off
To remove it from the startup list, use the –del option as shown below.
# chkconfig --del ip6tables # chkconfig --list | grep ip6tables
5. Turn-on or Turn-off a Service for a Selected Run Level
Sometimes you might not want to delete the whole service. Instead, you might just want to turn the flag on or off for a particular run level (for a particular service).
The following example will turn off nfserver service for level 5
# chkconfig --level 5 nfsserver off
You can also combine multiple levels. The following example will turn off nfsserver for both level 3 and 5.
# chkconfig --level 35 nfsserver off
6. Script Files under rc.d Subdirectories
Whenever you add or remove a service from chkconfig control, it does the following under the /etc/rc.d sub-directories.
The following example shows that xinetd is enabled for both run level 3 and 5.
So, xinetd will have two files under rc3.d directory, and two files under rc5.d directory. The file that starts with K is used during shutdown (K stands for kill). The file that starts with S is used during startup (S stands for start).
# chkconfig --list | grep xinetd xinetd 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off xinetd based services: # cd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d # ls | grep xinetd K08xinetd S14xinetd # cd /etc/rc.d/rc5.d # ls | grep xinetd K08xinetd S14xinetd
7. rcx.d Directory Changes for Add Operation
When you add a new service to chkconfig control, the default run levels for that service will be turned on automatically, and files will be created under the corresponding rcx directories.
For example, if the nfsserver service doesn’t exist in the chkconfig control, no nfsserver service startup files would be present under /etc/rc.d/rc*.d directories as shown below.
# chkconfig --list | grep nfsserver nfsserver 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:off 4:off 5:off 6:off # ls /etc/rc.d/rc3.d | grep nfsserver # ls /etc/rc.d/rc5.d | grep nfsserver
After you add the nfsserver service, you’ll see the symbolic links under these directories.
# chkconfig --add nfsserver nfsserver 0:off 1:off 2:off 3:on 4:off 5:on 6:off # cd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d # ls -l | grep nfsserver lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 2011-06-18 00:52 K08nfsserver -> ../nfsserver lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 2011-06-18 00:52 S14nfsserver -> ../nfsserver # cd /etc/rc.d/rc5.d # ls -l | grep nfsserver lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 2011-06-18 00:52 K08nfsserver -> ../nfsserver lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 2011-06-18 00:52 S14nfsserver -> ../nfsserver
When you turn off the service either using –del option or –level option, the corresponding symbolic link file under rcx.d directory will be deleted as shown below.
# chkconfig --level 5 nfsserver off # ls /etc/rc.d/rc5.d | grep nfsserver
1 Single-User mode
2 Multi-user mode console logins only (without networking)
3 Multi-User mode, console logins only
4 Not used/User-definable
5 Multi-User mode, with display manager as well as console logins (X11)
Using the diagram above you see in the .rpm architecture there are 7 basic run levels. Pretty easily defined, they all have their purpose but for our use in this article will be 3 and 5. These are your normal operating run levels, level 3 is command line only, level 5 is the same as 3 but will include the X-Window system.
Make a service start for normal usage
This is easy, chkconfig lets you do custom configurations and will allow you to make certain services start only on certain runlevels. For this example we will make a service start on 3,4,and 5:
# chkconfig httpd on
To auto start a new service:
To stop a service from auto starting on boot